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Sunday, November 15, 2020 | History

3 edition of Teratogenic and chromosomal damaging effects of illicit drugs found in the catalog.

Teratogenic and chromosomal damaging effects of illicit drugs

an annotated bibliography with selected related citations involving the effects of licit drugs

by Addiction Research Foundation of Ontario. Library.

  • 20 Want to read
  • 13 Currently reading

Published by Addiction Research Foundation in Toronto .
Written in English

    Subjects:
  • Chromosome abnormalities -- Bibliography,
  • Deformities -- Genetic aspects -- Bibliography,
  • Drugs -- Physiological aspects -- Bibliography

  • Edition Notes

    SeriesAddiction Research Foundation bibliographic series
    ContributionsBusse, Susanne, 1952-, Hall, Ronald Jeffrey, 1946-, Weise, Carol Erwin, 1948-
    Classifications
    LC ClassificationsRM300 A34
    The Physical Object
    Paginationx, 175 p.;
    Number of Pages175
    ID Numbers
    Open LibraryOL20636874M

    Environment and Birth Defects by James Graves Wilson was published in in the US. The book summarized information on the causes of malformations in newborns and aimed to acquaint policy makers with Wilson's suggestions for predicting the risks of environmental causes of birth defects, called also provided six principles for researching teratogens, a framework revised from.


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Teratogenic and chromosomal damaging effects of illicit drugs by Addiction Research Foundation of Ontario. Library. Download PDF EPUB FB2

Teratogenic and Teratogenic and chromosomal damaging effects of illicit drugs book Damaging Effects of Illicit Drugs: An Annotated Bibliography With Selected Related Citations Involving the Effects of Licit Drugs Creator Weise, C.E., comp.

Author(s): Weise,C E; Busse,S; Hall,R J; National Institute on Drug Abuse,; Addiction Research Center (U.S.), Title(s): Teratogenic and chromosomal damaging effects of illicit drugs; an annotated bibliography with selected related citations involving the effects of licit ed at the Addiction Research Foundation Library by C.

Weise with assistance from S. Busse and edited by R. Cocaine is one of the most commonly used drugs in the US and it has a history of both medical and illegal recreational use.

It is a drug capable of a wide array of effects on physical and mental health. Research on the teratogenic effects of cocaine began in the early s, and in research on the effects of cocaine on prenatal development.

During organogenesis (between 20 and 56 days after fertilization): Teratogenesis is most likely at this stage.

Drugs reaching the embryo during this stage may result in spontaneous abortion, a sublethal gross anatomic defect (true teratogenic effect), covert embryopathy (a permanent subtle metabolic or functional defect that may manifest later in life), or an increased risk of childhood cancer.

clearly species differences between teratogenic effects, limiting this testing in animals. Based upon. Fig. Table either anecdotal information on exposures in humans or on the basis of testing in animals, drugs are classified as to their teratogenic potential.

It should be emphasized Teratogenic and chromosomal damaging effects of illicit drugs book less than 2% of congenital. Certain drugs such as alcohol, some illegal drugs, and some prescription and over-the-counter medications are known to cause birth defects if taken during pregnancy.

Drugs that can cause birth defects are called ‘teratogens’. A teratogen is a substance that interferes with the normal development of a fetus. Risk factors for birth defects. harmful fetal effect. RECOGNIZED HUMAN TERATOGENS 1. DRUGS: Ex.

anticonvulsants methimazole retinoic acid (Accutane) 5. INTRAUTERINE INFECTIONS Ex. toxoplasmosis rubella retinoic acid (Accutane) varicella warfarin 2. HEAVY METALS: Ex. lead mercury 3. RADIATION: cancer therapy; tdi ti X 6. PROCEDURES Ex. CVS D & C ICSI not diagnostic X-rays iti 4.

The effects on the human fetus of prenatal cigarette use have been identified and studied since the s, 1 the effects of alcohol and opiate use have been studied since the s, 2 – 4 and the effects a variety of other illicit drugs have been studied since the s.

5 – 7 This report reviews data regarding the prevalence of exposure. Drink and drugs can damage men's sperm, study suggests Scientists found that toxic chemicals can damage sperm, which then pass altered genes onto.

The frequency of individuals with chromosomal damage reported among illicit drug users was more than triple that associated with the use of pharmacologically pure LSD. We conclude that chromosome damage, when found, was related to the effects of drug abuse in general and not, as initially reported, to.

The scientific uncertainty regarding the risks of the teratogenic effects of drugs significantly influences the quality of the drug information.

To focus on the benefits of drug use for conditions that may have negative pregnancy outcomes when untreated is essential to enable well-founded decisions regarding the use of medicines.

Illicit LSD and Chromosomal Damage The initial findings of chromosomal damage in illicit LSD users were reported by Irwin and Egozcue. (57) They compared a group of eight illicit LSD users with a group of nine controls. The users had a mean breakage rate of percent, more than double the percent rate in the controls.

Most teratogens are harmful only during a critical window of development (e.g., thalidomide is teratogenic only between days 28 and 50 of pregnancy). Teratogenic agents inhibit specific receptors or enzymes or disrupt specific developmental pathways (e.g., some agents show neurotropism or cardiotropism).

Effects of teratogens are dose-dependent. Dishotsky NI, Loughman WD, Mogar RE, Lipscomb WR. LSD and genetic damage. Science. Apr 30; ()– Smart RG, Bateman K. The chromosomal and teratogenic effects of lysergic acid diethylamide: a review of the current literature. Can Med Assoc J.

Oct 26; 99 (16)– [PMC free article]. Both over-the-counter and prescription medications have the potential to cause problems with the development of a fetus. The use of illegal drugs may cause underweight birth, placental abruption, developmental delay, addiction in the baby and death.

Some illegal drugs could also cause brain, liver or kidney damage to the baby. Drug use is an uncommon cause of birth defects, yet approximatelychildren (% of live births) are born with birth defects each year.

While some papers estimate that % of birth defects are thought to be caused by medications taken during pregnancy, the authors could not find a source for this statement that was based on study d. Teratogenic and Chromosomal Damaging Effects of Illicit Drugs: An Annotated Bibliography With Selected Related Citations Involving the Effects of Licit Drugs  Weise, C.E., comp.

() Related Items in Google Scholar. Illicit Drugs: Common illicit drugs include cocaine, ecstasy and other club drugs, heroin, marijuana, and prescription drugs that are abused.

It is difficult to completely determine the effects of a particular illicit drug on a developing child because most mothers who use, use more than one substance and have other unhealthy behaviors. Teratogens and Pregnancy Margaret A Rivera Child Psychology 2/8/12 In the world we live in today there are many things which may affect pregnancy and the development of the growing fetus within the mother’s gens are drugs, chemicals, or infections that may cause abnormal fetal growth (Lingen, ).

Some believe that teratogens can affect the fetus as early as 10 to 14 days. In animals, teratogens exert their action within a relatively narrow dose range, usually one-fourth to one-half the average dose that would kill the mother.

2 The effect also depends on the developmental stage during which the drug is administered. That is, an agent may be teratogenic only at a higher or lower dose at a different stage. Given regions of the brain also show sensitive periods during which they are most susceptible to the teratogenic effects of alcohol (Tran & Kelly, ).

Prescription and/or Illegal Drugs. Use of any type of drug—whether illegal, prescription, or over-the-counter—can be dangerous during pregnancy. Mutagens, teratogens and carcinogens are similar in that each causes some form of mutation. Congenital malformations can be caused by mutations, which may occur in the parent germ cell (sperm or ovum), in the resulting embryo (mutagenic effect), or in some cells of a fetus after development has begun (teratogenic effect).

There have been amazing advances in embryology, teratology, reproductive biology, genetics, and epidemiology in the past 50 years that have provided scientists and clinicians with a better perspective on the causes of congenital malformations.

We still cannot provide the families of children with malformations a definitive diagnosis and cause in every instance. Discusses the possible hazards of cancer, birth defects, and genetic changes that might result from indiscriminate use of so-called street drugs, therapeutic drugs of common consumption, or by the interaction of any number of drugs with each other or with environmental pollutants such as pesticides and food additives.

Drugs used for nonmedical purposes – whether obtained on the street or in. chromosomal abnormality, single gene defects, syndromes, teratogens, environmental, unknown. Types of teratogens. drugs, infections, toxins. Women who smoke have more difficulty becoming pregnant and have a higher risk of never becoming pregnant.

2,4 Smoking during pregnancy can cause tissue damage in the unborn baby, particularly in the lung and brain, and some studies suggests a link between maternal smoking and cleft lip. 1,2 Studies also suggest a relationship between tobacco and miscarriage. Placental transporter proteins are involved in the pharmacokinetics of drugs and have an effect on drug level and fetal drug exposure.

There is an association between P-glycoprotein polymorphisms and the risk of fetal birth defects induced by medications during pregnancy. 14 Six underlying teratogenic mechanisms are stated to be associated with. Drugs that cause birth defects are called 'teratogens'.

The teratogenic drugs interfere with the normal development of a fetus and can cause birth defects including cleft lip, cleft palate, spina. Illicit drugs as well as prescribed medications can have serious teratogenic effects. It is difficult to completely determine the effects of a particular illicit drug on a developing child because most mothers, who use, use more than one substance.

However, several problems seem clear. Designer drugs. The advent of novel illegal or quasi-legal designer drugs intended as substitutes or alternatives to illegal drugs has given rise to several new legends as well.

Cannibalism from bath salts. Invarious drugs nicknamed "bath salts" were implicated in several violent attacks, including a few cases of cannibalism. Types of teratogens Alcohol and illegal drugs. Alcohol is the most common cause of congenital disorders that can be prevented.

Alcohol is poisonous to a fetus and can cause brain damage. Drinking alcohol while pregnant can cause the fetus to get fetal alcohol syndrome. Illegal drugs, like heroin and cocaine, are also poisonous to the fetus and can cause many different congenital problems.

Teratology is the study of abnormalities of physiological is often thought of as the study of human congenital abnormalities, but it is broader than that, taking into account other non-birth developmental stages, including puberty; and other organisms, including related term developmental toxicity includes all manifestations of abnormal development that are caused by.

Teratogens: Illegal Drugs Cocaine, heroin, and methadone: Can cause low birth weight, physical defects, breathing difficulties, and death around the time of birth. Unfortunately, for most of the examples in the book, the mothers who were exposed to radiation didn’t know it was happening or couldn’t escape it (e.g.

Hiroshima or Chernobyl. The effects of maternal use of the aforementioned illicit drugs is less studied, partially because they are used less frequently. It is important, however, that as a population, we become more educated about these drugs and the potentially life threatening outcomes for babies in utero.

Fact: As many as one in ten birth defects are caused by using OTC or prescription drugs during pregnancy. Teratogenic medications can cause birth defects in three ways: 1) they can damage the fetus directly; 2) they can damage the placenta or umbilical cord, thus increasing the risk of birth defects; and 3) they can cause uterine contractions.

A street drug (also called illegal or illicit drug) is a drug that is against the law to have or use. Street drugs are bad for you, and they’re bad for your baby. About 1 in 20 women (5 percent) take street drugs during pregnancy. Street drugs include: Cocaine; Ecstasy, methamphetamine and other club drugs; Heroin; Marijuana.

Teratogen: Any agent that can disturb the development of an embryo or fetus. Teratogens may cause a birth defect in the child.

Or a teratogen may halt the pregnancy outright. The classes of teratogens include radiation, maternal infections, chemicals, and drugs. Drugs known to be capable of acting as teratogens include, but are by no means limited to, ACE inhibitors like benazepril (brand.

Drugs such as alcohol and tobacco appear to have harmful effects on the developing fetus, often resulting in low birth weights and learning and behavior difficulties.

The effects of drugs depend on the timing of exposure, the dosage, and the quality of the postnatal environment. Drugs that may have a negative effect on infants during pregnancy include: Heroin — Women who use heroin and other opioid drugs while pregnant put infants at risk of neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS), a condition where infants become opioid dependent after exposure to the drugs through the placenta s with NAS may demonstrate increased irritability, seizures, and stomach.

Teratogens are environmental agents such as drugs, chemicals, viruses, or other factors that produce a birth defect (Feldman ). About % of all pregnancies that occur result in the fetus being born with a serious birth defect.

A cause of birth defects can be linked to faulty genes and or chromosomes. When researching into the effects of prenatal exposure to specific drugs it is hard to determine the full extent of impact, as separating external contributing factors is complicated. For example, those who use one drug are more likely to use others, smoke cigarettes and drink alcohol than non-users, making the effects hard to assess individually.

Compared with the general population, people addicted to drugs are roughly twice as likely to suffer from mood and anxiety disorders, with the reverse also true. Inan estimated million ( percent) adults ages 18 and older experienced some form of mental illness (other than a developmental or substance use disorder).Effects on Chromosomes The research on the possibility that hallucinogenic drugs cause damage to chromosomes has proceeded along three different avenues, the first of which has been to examine the effect of LSD on the chromosomes of leukocytes cultured in vitro.

Cohen, Marinello, and Back(6) conducted such a study in which they compared.